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2010s 2000s 1990s 1980s


  1. DeVries Z. C., S. Ahmed, R. Mick and C. Schal. 2019. Bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) attraction to human odors: Validation of a two-choice olfactometer. Journal of Medical Entomology (in press). doi: 10.1093/jme/tjy202.
  2. DeVries Z. C., R. G. Santangelo, J. Crissman, R. Mick and C. Schal. 2019. Exposure risks and ineffectiveness of total release foggers (TRFs) used for cockroach control in residential settings. BMC Public Health 19: 96. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6371-z.  Link   NCSU Press Release  Science  UPI   Science Daily   EurekAlert   Fox News   New York Post   Business Standard   Yahoo News   Foreign Affairs   Tech Times   Gizmodo   PCT Magazine  C&EN  Boing Boing  Beyond Pesticides   FairWarning   The Doctor will See you Now   The Medical News   Tucson Sentinel   NC Health News   Science Magazine  .
  3. Funaro C. F., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2019. Queen and king recognition in the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes: Evidence for royal recognition pheromones. PLoS One (in revision).
  4. Glesner J., S. Filep, L. D. Vailes, S. Wünschmann, M. D. Chapman, G. Birrueta, A. Frazier, K. Y. Jeong, C. Schal, L. Bacharier, A. Beigelman, P. Busse, V. Schulten, A. Sette and A. Pomés. 2019. Allergen content in German cockroach extracts and sensitization profiles to a new expanded set of cockroach allergens determine in vitro extract potency for IgE reactivity. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (in press). doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2018.07.036.
  5. Pomés A. and C. Schal. 2019. Cockroach and other inhalant insect allergens. In: Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy (R. F. Lockey, D. K. Ledford, eds.), Chapter 14, pp. xx-xx, Taylor & Francis Group.
  6. Shymanovich T., L. Faw, N. Hajhashemi, J. Teague, C. Schal, L. Ponnusamy, C. S. Apperson, E. Hatano and G. Wasserberg. 2019. Diel periodicity and visual cues guide oviposition behavior in Phlebotomus papatasi, vector of old-world cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Neglected Diseases (in revision).
  7. Wada-Katsumata A. and C Schal. 2019. Antennal grooming facilitates courtship performance in a group-living insect, the German cockroach Blattella germanica. Scientific Reports (in press).
  8. Wesson D., C. Apperson, L. Ponnusamy, N. Xu, C. Schal and C. Hoffmann. 2019. Mosquito trap. U.S. Patent US10178860 B2, Granted January 15, 2019.  PDF


  1. Booth W., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2018. Population genetics of bed bugs. In: Advances in the Biology and Management of the Modern Bed Bug (S. L. Doggett, D. M. Miller, C-Y. Lee, eds.), Chapter 18, pp. 173–182, Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN: 978-1-119-17152-2.  Link (Wiley-Blackwell)
  2. Cruise A., E. Hatano, D. W. Watson and C. Schal. 2018. Comparison of techniques for sampling adult necrophilous insects from pig carcasses. Journal of Medical Entomology 55: 947–954 (cover photo). doi: 10.1093/jme/tjx255.   PDF
  3. Cruise A., D. W. Watson and C. Schal. 2018. Ecological succession of adult necrophilous insects on neonate Sus scrofa domesticus in central North Carolina. PLoS ONE 13(4): e0195785. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195785.   Link
  4. Cruise A., D. W. Watson and C. Schal. 2018. A novel passive sampling technique for collecting adult necrophilous insects arriving at neonate pig carcasses. Environmental Entomology 47: 1573–1581. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvy131.   PDF
  5. DeVries Z., R. Santangelo, A. M. Barbarin and C. Schal. 2018. Histamine as an emergent indoor contaminant: Accumulation and persistence in bed bug infested homes. PLoS One 13(2): e0192462. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192462.  Link   NCSU Press Release   EurekAlert   Newsweek   MedPage Today   Science News   Doctors Lounge   SigmaXi SmartBrief   PCT Magazine   WNCN-CBS NC   UPI   News Medical   Health Day   Science News for Students   Ars Technica   WPXI Pittsburgh   Tech Times   Atlanta Journal Constitution
  6. Fisher M. L., D. W. Watson, M. Breen, H. Mochizuki and C. Schal. 2018. Growth kinetics of endosymbiont Wolbachia in the common bed bug, Cimex lectulariusScientific Reports 8(1):11444. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-29682-2.  Link
  7. Funaro C. F., Katalin Böröczky, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2018. Identification of a queen and king recognition pheromone in the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (in press). doi: 10.1073/pnas.1721419115.  Link   NCSU Press Release   Texas A&M Press Release   EurekAlert   ScienceDaily   Technology Networks   PCT Magazine   Cosmos   ZME Science
  8. Groot A. T., S. Nojima, J. J. Heath, B. Ammagarahalli, M. van Wijk, A. Classen, R. G. Santangelo, J. Lopez and C. Schal. 2018. Alcohol contributes to attraction of Heliothis (= Chlorideavirescens males to females. Journal of Chemical Ecology 44: 621–630. (cover photo) doi: 10.1007/s10886-018-0995-4.  Link
  9. Harrison M. C., N. Arning, L. P. M. Kremer, G. Ylla, X. Belles, E. Bornberg-Bauer, , A. K. Huylmans, E. Jongepier, M.-D. Piulachs, S. Richards, C. Schal. 2018. Expansions of key protein families in the German cockroach highlight the molecular basis of its remarkable success as a global indoor pest. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 330: 254–264. (cover photo) doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22824.   Link
  10. Harrison M. C., E. Jongepier, H. M. Robertson, N. Arning, T. Bitard-Feildel, H. Chao, C. P. Childers, H. Dinh, H. Doddapaneni, S. Dugan, J. Gowin, C. Greiner, Y. Han, H. Hu, D. S.T. Hughes, A-K. Huylmans, C. Kemena, L. P.M. Kremer, S. L. Lee, A. Lopez-Ezquerra, L. Mallet, J. M. Monroy-Kuhn, A. Moser, S. C. Murali, D. M. Muzny, S. Otani, M-D. Piulachs, M. Poelchau, J. Qu, F. Schaub, A. Wada-Katsumata, K. C. Worley, Q. Xie, G. Ylla, M. Poulsen, R. A. Gibbs, C. Schal, S. Richards, X. Belles, J. Korb and E. Bornberg-Bauer. 2018. Hemimetabolous genomes reveal molecular basis of termite eusociality. Nature Ecology and Evolution 2: 557–566. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0459-1.  Link  NCSU blog  Univ of Münster   Public   My Science   Innovations Report   AlphaGalileo   EurekAlert   R&D   Brinkwire   BrightSurf   Science Daily   Greenreport   Sinc   TekCrispy   Pest Control Technology;   Related stories: NY Times   LiveScience   Inside Science   ZME Science   Week Facts
  11. Kakumanu M. L., J. M. Maritz, J. M. Carlton and C. Schal. 2018. Overlapping community composition of gut and fecal microbiomes in lab-reared and field-collected German cockroaches. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84(17): e01037-18. doi: 10.1128/AEM.01037-18.  Link
  12. Kozlov E. N., E. U. Martynova, V. I. Popenko, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2018. Intracellular localization of Blattella germanica densovirus (BgDV1) capsid proteins. Viruses 10(7): 370. doi: 10.3390/v10070370.  Link
  13. Nojima S., A. Classen, A. T. Groot and C. Schal. 2018. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals emitted from the pheromone gland of individual Heliothis subflexa females. PLoS One 13(8): e0202035. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202035.  Link
  14. Robertson H. M., R. L. Baits, K. K. O. Walden, A. Wada-Katsumata and C. Schal. 2018. Enormous expansion of the chemosensory gene repertoire in the omnivorous German cockroach Blattella germanicaJournal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution 330: 265–278. (cover photo) doi: 10.1002/jez.b.22797.   Link
  15. Schal C., N. Czado, R. Gamble, A. Barrett, K Weathers and K. M. Lodhi. 2018. Isolation, identification, and time course of human DNA typing from bed bugs, Cimex lectularius. Forensic Science International 293: 1–6. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.10.008.  PDF   NFSTC@FIU Forensic Update video (first 2 min)
  16. Sierras A., A. Wada-Katsumata and C. Schal. 2018. Effectiveness of boric acid by ingestion, but not by contact, against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 111: 2772–2781 (cover photo). doi: 10.1093/jee/toy260.  PDF   Entomology today
  17. Wada-Katsumata A., H. M. Robertson, J. Silverman and C. Schal. 2018. Changes in the peripheral chemosensory system drive adaptive shifts in food preferences in insects. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 12: 281. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00281.  Link


  1. Balvín O., T. Bartonička, K. Pilařová, Z. C. DeVries and C. Schal. 2017. Discrimination between lineage-specific shelters by bat- and human-associated bed bugs does not constitute a stable reproductive barrier. Parasitology Research 116: 237–242. doi: 10.1007/s00436-016-5284-y.  PDF
  2. Barbarin A. M., G. S. Bellicanta, J. Osborne, C. Schal and N. E. Jenkins. 2017. Susceptibility of insecticide resistant bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) to infection by fungal biopesticide. Pest Management Science 73: 1568–1573. doi: 10.1002/ps.4576.  PDF
  3. DeVries Z., R. Mick, O. Balvín and C. Schal. 2017. Aggregation behavior and reproductive compatibility in the family Cimicidae. Scientific Reports 7: 13163. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12735-3.  Link
  4. Ko A. E., K. Jensen, C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2017. Effects of foraging distance on macronutrient balancing and performance in the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaJournal of Experimental Biology 220: 304–311 doi: 10.1242/jeb.146829.  PDF
  5. Jensen K., A. Wada-Katsumata, C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2017. Persistence of a sugar-rejecting cockroach genotype under various dietary regimes. Scientific Reports 7: 46361. doi: 10.1038/srep46361.  Link
  6. Matos Y. K., J. A. Osborn and C. Schal. 2017. Effects of cyclic feeding and starvation, mating, and sperm condition on egg production and fertility in the common bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 110: 1483–1490. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjx132.  PDF
  7. Matos Y. K., A. Sierras and C. Schal. 2017. Evaluation of the potential for secondary kill for ingested insecticides in the common bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 110: 1218–1225. doi: 10.1093/jee/tox082.  PDF
  8. Rabito F. A., J. C. Carlson, H. He, D. Werthmann and C. Schal. 2017. A single intervention for cockroach control reduces cockroach exposure and asthma morbidity in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 140: 565–570. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.019.  PDF   Tulane News   FOX 8 WVUE New Orleans   Medical Life Sciences News   New Orleans Advocate   The Times-Picayune   Medical Press   Science Daily   Science Newsline Medicine   The Informant   AAAAI   PCT Magazine
  9. Sierras A. and C. Schal. 2017. Comparison of ingestion and topical application of insecticides against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Pest Management Science 73: 521–527 (cover photo). doi: 10.1002/ps.4464.  PDF
  10. van Wijk M., J. Heath, R. Lievers, C. Schal and A. T. Groot. 2017. Proximity of signallers can maintain sexual signal variation under stabilizing selection. Scientific Reports 7:18101. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17327-9.   Link   NCSU   Univ of Amsterdam   Science Newsline   AlphaGalileo   EurekAlert!   La Vanguardia   Science Daily    Science (related)


  1. Benoit J. B., Z. N. Adelman, K. Reinhardt, A. Dolan, M. Poelchau, E. C. Jennings, E. M. Szuter, R. W. Hagan, H. Gujar, J. Shukla, F. Zhu, M. Mohan, D. R. Nelson, A. J. Rosendale, C. Derst, V. Resnik, S. Wernig, P. Menegazzi, C. Wegener, N. Peschel, J. M. Hendershot, W. Blenau, R. Predel, P. R. Johnston, P. Ioannidis, R. M. Waterhouse, R. Nauen, C. Schorn, M.-C. Ott, F. Maiwald, J. S. Johnston, A. D. Gondhalekar, M. E. Scharf, B. F. Peterson, K. R. Raje, B. A. Hottel, D. Armisén, A. J. Johan Crumière, P. N. Refki, M. E. Santos, E. Sghaier, S. Viala, A. Khila, S.-J. Ahn, C. Childers, C.-Y. Lee, H. Lin, D. S. T. Hughes, E. J. Duncan, S. C. Murali, J. Qu, S. Dugan, S. L. Lee, H. Chao, H. Dinh, Y. Han, H. Doddapaneni, K. C. Worley, D. M. Muzny, D. Wheeler, K. A. Panfilio, I. M. Vargas Jentzsch, E. L. Vargo, W. Booth, M. Friedrich, M. L. Porter, J. W. Jones, O. Mittapalli, C. Zhao, J.-J. Zhou, J. D. Evans, G. M. Attardo, H. M. Robertson, E. M. Zdobnov, J. M.C. Ribeiro, R. A. Gibbs, J. H. Werren, S. R. Palli, C. Schal and S. Richards. 2016. Unique features of the bed bug, a global human ectoparasite, identified through genome sequencing. Nature Communications 7:10165. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10165.  Link   NCSU   Washington Post   Business Insider   Genome Web   U.S. News & World Report   The New Yorker   The Australian   EurekaAlert   BBC   Christian Science Monitor   The New Yorker   ABC News   WRAL Raleigh   Wall St J   WNBC New York
  2. Choi D. B., J. P. Grieco, C. S. Apperson, C. Schal, L. Ponnusamy, D. M. Wesson and N. L. Achee. 2016. Effect of spatial repellent exposure on dengue vector attraction to oviposition sites. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10(7): e0004850. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0004850.  Link
  3. DeVries Z. C., R. Mick and C. Schal. 2016. Feel the heat: Activation, orientation, and feeding responses of bed bugs to different host temperatures. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 3773–3780. doi: 10.1242/jeb.143487.  PDF
  4. Hosseini S. A., M. van Wijk, G. Ke, S. H. Goldansaz, C. Schal and A. T. Groot. 2016. Experimental evidence for chemical mate guarding in a moth. Scientific Reports 6: 38567 doi: 10.1038/srep38567.  Link
  5. Jensen K., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2016. Gustatory adaptation affects sexual maturation in male German cockroaches, Blattella germanicaPhysiological Entomology 4: 19–23. doi: 10.1111/phen.12122.  PDF
  6. Jensen K., A. E. Ko, C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2016. Insecticide resistance and nutrition interactively shape life-history parameters in German cockroaches. Scientific Reports 6, 28731. doi: 10.1038/srep28731.  Link
  7. Jurenka R., G. J. Blomquist, C. Schal and C. Tittiger. 2016. Biochemistry and molecular biology of pheromone production. In: Reference Module in Life Sciences 2017, Elsevier 705–751.
  8. Ko A., D. N. Bieman, C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2016. Insecticide resistance and diminished secondary kill performance of bait formulations against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Pest Management Science 72: 1778–1784. doi: 10.1002/ps.4211.  PDF
  9. Ko A. E., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2016. Diet quality affects bait performance in German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Pest Management Science 72: 1826–1836. doi: 10.1002/ps.4295.  PDF
  10. Kolokotronis S-O., J. Foox, J. A. Rosenfeld, M. R. Brugler, D. Reeves, J. B. Benoit, W. Booth, G. Robison, M. Steffen, S. R. Palli, C. Schal, S. Richards, A. Narechania, R. H. Baker, L. N. Sorkin, G. Amato, C. E. Mason, M. E. Siddall, R. DeSalle and Z. Sakas. 2016. The mitogenome of the bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Mitochondrial DNA Part B: Resources 1(1): 425–427. doi: 10.1080/23802359.2016.1180268.  Link
  11. Martynova E. U., C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2016. Effects of recombination on Densovirus phylogeny. Archives of Virology 161: 63–75. doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2642-5.  PDF
  12. Matos Y. K. and C. Schal. 2016. Laboratory and field evaluation of Zyrox Fly Granular Bait against Asian and German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 109: 1807–1812. doi: 10.1093/jee/tow092.  PDF
  13. Paz-Soldan V. A., J. Yukich, A. Soonthorndhada, M. Giron, C. S. Apperson, L. Ponnusamy, C. Schal, A. C. Morrison, J. Keating and D. M. Wesson. 2016. Design and testing of novel lethal ovitrap to reduce populations of Aedes mosquitoes: community-based participatory research between industry, academia and communities in Peru and Thailand. PLoS ONE 11(8): e0160386. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160386.  Link
  14. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, C. Schal, C. S. Apperson and D. Wesson. 2016. Mosquito attractant compositions and methods. U.S. Patent US9392788 B2, Granted July 19, 2016. Link
  15. Raab R. W., J. E. Moore, E. L. Vargo, L. Rose, J. Raab, M. Culbreth, G. Burzumato, A. Koyee, B. McCarthy, J. Raffaele, C. Schal and R. Vaidyanathan. 2016. New introductions, spread of existing matrilines, and high rates of pyrethroid resistance result in chronic infestations of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in lower income housing. PLoS ONE 11(2): e0117805. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0117805. Link
  16. Rangel J., K. Böröczky, C. Schal and D. R. Tarpy. 2016. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queen reproductive potential affects queen mandibular gland pheromone composition and worker retinue response. PLoS ONE 11(6): e0156027. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156027. Link
  17. Shorter J. R., L. M. Dembeck, L. J. Everett, T. V. Morozova, G. H. Arya, L. Turlapati, G. E. St. Armour, C. Schal, T. F. C. Mackay and R. R. H. Anholt. 2016. Obp56h modulates mating behavior in Drosophila melanogasterG3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics 6: 3335-3342. doi: 10.1534/g3.116.034595. Link
  18. Wang F-M., J-Y. Deng, C. Schal, Y-G. Lou, G-X. Zhou, B-B. Ye, X-H. Yin, Z-H. Xu and L-Z. Shen. 2016. Non-host plant volatiles disrupt sex pheromone communication in a specialist herbivore. Scientific Reports 6, 32666. doi: 10.1038/srep32666. Link


  1. Booth W., O. Balvin, E. L. Vargo, J. Vilímová and C. Schal. 2015. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectulariusMolecular Ecology 24: 980–992. doi: 10.1111/mec.13086.  PDF
  2. Dembeck L. M., K. Böröczky, W. Huang, C. Schal, R. R. H. Anholt and T. F. C. Mackay. 2015. Genetic architecture of natural variation in cuticular hydrocarbon composition in Drosophila melanogastereLife 4:e09861. doi: 10.7554/eLife.09861.  Link
  3. Jensen K., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2015. Adaptive contraction of diet breadth affects sexual maturation and specific nutrient consumption in an extreme generalist omnivore. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 28: 906–916. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12617.  PDF
  4. Jensen K., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2015. Suboptimal nutrient balancing despite dietary choice in glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanicaJournal of Insect Physiology 81: 42–47. doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.07.001.  PDF
  5. Marayati B. F., C. Schal, L. Ponnusamy, C. S. Apperson, T. Rowland and G. Wasserberg. 2015. Attraction and oviposition preferences of Phlebotomus papatasi, vector of Old-World cutaneous leishmaniases, to larval rearing media. Parasites and Vectors 8: 663. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-1261-z.  PDF
  6. Martin L. J., R. Adams, A. Bateman, H. M. Bik, S. Crane, L. Fellman, S. M. Hird, D. Hughes, S. W. Kembel, K. Kinney, S.-O. Kolokotronis, G. Levy, C. McClain, J. F. Meadow, R. F. Medina, G. Mhuireach, C. S. Moreau, J. Munshi-South, C. Palmer, L. Popova, C. Schal, J. Siegel, M. Täubel, M. Trautwein, J. A. Ugalde, W. Wilson and R. R. Dunn. 2015. Evolution on the indoor biome. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 30: 223–232 doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2015.02.001.  PDF
  7. Matos Y. K. and C. Schal. 2015. Electroantennogram responses and field trapping of Asian cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) with blattellaquinone, sex pheromone of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Environmental Entomology 44: 1155–1160. doi: 10.1093/ee/nvv090.  PDF
  8. Ponnusamy, K., C. Schal, D. M. Wesson, C. Arellano and C. S. Apperson. 2015. Oviposition responses of Aedes mosquitoes to bacterial isolates from attractive bamboo infusions. Parasites and Vectors 8: 486. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-1068-y.  PDF
  9. Robison G. A., O. Balvin, C. Schal, E. L. Vargo and W. Booth. 2015. Extensive mitochondrial heteroplasmy in natural populations of a resurging human pest, the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology52: 734–738. doi: 10.1093/jme/tjv055.  PDF
  10. Wada-Katsumata A, L. Zurek, G. Nalyanya, W. L. Roelofs, A. Zhang and C. Schal. 2015. Gut bacteria mediate aggregation in the German cockroach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 112: 15678–15683. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1504031112. Link   NCSU   Science   Scientific American   The Scientist   Smithsonian   German Public Radio   Science Codex   EurekaAlert   C&EN   Daily Mail   Inverse   Motherboard   PCT


  1. Groot A. T., G. Schöfl, O. Inglis, S. Donnerhacke, A. Classen, A. Schmalz, R. G. Santangelo, J. Emerson, F. Gould, C. Schal and D. G. Heckel. 2014. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 (1779):20133054. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3054. PDF
  2. Martynova E. U., T. V. Kapelinskaya, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2014. Intracellular localization of regulatory proteins of the German cockroach Blattella germanica densovirus. Molecular Biology 48: 301–304. PDF
  3. Romero A. and C. Schal. 2014. Blood constituents as phagostimulants for the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 552–557. PDF
  4. Saenz V. L., R. G. Santangelo, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2014. Group-living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development. Journal of Medical Entomology 51: 293–295. PDF   ESA   Science Daily   RedOrbit   Medical Daily   PR Web
  5. Shik J. Z., C. Schal, and J. Silverman. 2014. Diet specialization in an extreme omnivore: nutritional regulation in glucose-averse German cockroaches. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27: 2096–2105. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12458. PDF
  6. Vargo E. L., J. R. Crissman, W. Booth, R. G. Santangelo, D. V. Mukha and C. Schal. 2014. Hierarchical genetic analysis of German cockroach (Blattella germanica) populations from within buildings to across continents. PLoS ONE 9(7): e102321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102321. PDF
  7. Uzsák A., J. Dieffenderfer, A. Bozkurt and C. Schal. 2014. Social facilitation of insect reproduction with motor-driven tactile stimuli. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281 (1783):20140325. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0325. PDF   NCSU   Smithsonian   Entomology Today    RedOrbit


  1. Böröczky K., A. Wada-Katsumata, D. Batchelor, M. Zhukovskaya and C. Schal. 2013. Insects groom their antennae to enhance olfactory acuity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 110: 3615–3620. Link    In this isssue of PNAS    NPR Science Friday  audio   SciFri video   YouTube   Discover  Chemical & Engineering News  Discovery Channel
  2. Carr A. L., R. M. Roe, C. Arellano, D. E. Sonenshine, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2013. Responses of Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis (Acari: Ixodidae) to odorants that attract haematophagous insects. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 27: 86–95. Link   Editor’s Choice   NCSU Perspectives
  3. Groot A.T., H. Staudacher, A. Barthel, O. Inglis, G. Schöfl, R.G. Santangelo, S. Gebauer-Jung S, H. Vogel, J. Emerson, C. Schal C, D.G. Heckel and F. Gould. 2013. One quantitative trait locus for intra- and interspecific variation in a sex pheromone. Molecular Ecology 22: 1065–1080. Link
  4. Saenz V. L., R. G. Maggi, E. B. Breitschwerdt, J. Kim, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2013. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not BartonellaPLoS ONE 8(9): e73661. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073661. Link  Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  5. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2013. Sensory cues involved in social facilitation of reproduction in Blattella germanicafemales. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055678. Link
  6. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2013. Social interaction facilitates reproduction in male German cockroaches, Blattella germanicaAnimal Behaviour 85: 1501–1509. PDF
  7. Wada-Katsumata A., J. Silverman and C. Schal. 2013. Changes in taste neurons support the emergence of an adaptive behavior in cockroaches. Science 340: 972–975.  Abstract   PDF&SM   Full Text (also movies)  Dryad data repository    Science Podcast (start at 10:10 min)  NY Times   Associated Press   BBC (narrated video)  The Scientist   NPR   Pest Control Technology Podcast     ScienceNews   J General Physiol Access the recommendation on F1000Prime


  1. Booth W., V. L. Saenz, R. G. Santangelo, C. Wang, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2012. Molecular markers reveal infestation dynamics of the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) within apartment buildings. Journal of Medical Entomology 49: 535–546. PDF
  2. Saenz V. L., W. Booth, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2012. Genetic analysis of bed bug populations reveals small propagule size within individual infestations but high genetic diversity across infestations from the Eastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 49: 865–875. PDF
  3. Uzsák A. and C. Schal. 2012. Differential physiological responses of the German cockroach to social interactions during the ovarian cycle. Journal of Experimental Biology 215: 3037–3044. PDF


  1. Ahmad A., A. Ghosh, C. Schal and L. Zurek. 2011. Insects in confined swine operations carry a large antibiotic resistant and potentially virulent enterococcal community. BMC Microbiology 11: 23. Link   NCSU press release   Grist   Science Daily   WebMD   NPR, Fresh Air Scientific American   Daily Mail
  2. Benda N. D., C. Brownie, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2011. Field observations of oviposition by a specialist herbivore on plant parts and plant species unsuitable as larval food. Environmental Entomology 40: 1478–1486. PDF
  3. Blomquist G. J., R. Jurenka, C. Schal and C. Tittiger. 2011. Pheromone production: Biochemistry and molecular biology. In: Insect Endocrinology (L. I. Gilbert, ed.), Chapter 12, pp. 523–567, Academic Press. Elsevier.ScienceDirect.
  4. Booth W., D. H. Johnson, S. Moore, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2011. Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors. Biology Letters 7: 253–256. PDF   NCSU press release   Discover magazine   MSNBC   BBC   Discovery News   New Scientist  PhysOrg   LiveScience   CBS News   U.S. News & World Report   WUNC-NPR: The State of Things   CBC NPR Canada: As It Happens   The Telegraph   Nature   Mirror
  5. Booth W., L. Million, R. G. Reynolds, G. M. Burghardt, E. L. Vargo, C. Schal, A. C. Tzika, and G. W. Schuett. 2011. Consecutive virgin births in the new world boid snake, the Colombian rainbow boa, Epicrates maurusJournal of Heredity 102: 759–763. PDF
  6. Booth W., R. G. Santangelo, E. L. Vargo, D. V. Mukha and C. Schal. 2011. Population genetic structure in German cockroaches (Blattella germanica): Differentiated islands in an agricultural landscape. Journal of Heredity 102: 175–183. PDF
  7. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, R. G. Santangelo, S. Carpenter, F. X. Webster, D. J. Kiemle, C. Gemeno, W. S. Leal and C. Schal. 2011. An unusual macrocyclic lactone sex pheromone of Parcoblatta lata, a primary food source of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 109: E490–E496. Link   NCSU press release   Earth Times
  8. Gemeno C., G. M. Williams and C. Schal. 2011. Effect of shelter on reproduction, growth and longevity of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). European Journal of Entomology 108: 205–210.PDF
  9. Groot A. T., A. Classen, O. Inglis, C. A. Blanco, J. López, A. Terán Vargas, C. Schal, D. G. Heckel and G. Schöfl. 2011. Genetic differentiation across North America in the generalist moth Heliothis virescens and the specialist H. subflexaMolecular Ecology 20: 2676–2692. PDF
  10. Kapelinskaya T., E. Martynova, C. Schal and D. Mukha. 2011. Expression strategy of densonucleosis virus from the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaJournal of Virology 85: 11855–11870. PDF
  11. Mukha D. V., V. Mysina, V. Mavropulo and C. Schal. 2011. Structure and molecular evolution of the ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer in the cockroach genus BlattellaGenome 54: 222–234. PDF
  12. Nojima S., D. J. Kiemle, F. X. Webster, C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 2011. Nanogram-scale preparation and NMR analysis for mass-limited small volatile compounds. PLoS ONE 6(3): e18178. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018178.Link
  13. Ponnusamy L., K. Böröczky, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2011. Bacteria stimulate hatching of yellow fever mosquito eggs. PLoS ONE 6(9): e24409. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0024409. Link
  14. Richard F-J., C. Schal, D. R. Tarpy and C. M. Grozinger. 2011. Effects of instrumental insemination and insemination quantity on Dufour’s gland chemical profiles and vitellogenin expression in honey bee queens (Apis mellifera). Journal of Chemical Ecology 37:1027–1036. PDF Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  15. Schal C. 2011. Cockroaches. In: Handbook of Pest Control (S. Hedges and D. Moreland, eds.), pp. 150–291, GIE Media. Mallis HandbookContributors      Q&A.
  16. Wada-Katsumata A., J. Silverman and C. Schal. 2011. Differential inputs from chemosensory appendages mediate feeding responses to glucose in wild-type and glucose-averse German cockroaches, Blattella germanicaChemical Senses 36: 589–600. PDF
  17. Wang G., G. M. Vásquez, C. Schal, L. J. Zwiebel and F. Gould. 2011. Functional characterization of pheromone receptors in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescensInsect Molecular Biology 20: 125–133. PDF


  1. Crissman J. R., W. Booth, R. G. Santangelo, D. V. Mukha, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2010. Population genetic structure of the German cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae) in apartment buildings. Journal of Medical Entomology47: 553–564. PDF
  2. Gould F., M. Estock, N. K. Hillier, B. Powell, A. T. Groot, C. M. Ward, J. L. Emerson, C. Schal, N. J. Vickers. 2010. Sexual isolation of male moths explained by a single pheromone response QTL containing four receptor genes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 107: 8660–8665. PDF (PDF of commentary by David Heckel).
  3. Groot A. T. C. A. Blanco, A. Classen, O. Inglis, R. G. Santangelo, J. Lopez, D. G. Heckel and C. Schal. 2010. Variation in sexual communication of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescensSouthwestern Entomologist 35: 367–372. PDF
  4. Groot A. T., A. Classen, H. Staudacher, C. Schal and D. G. Heckel. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity in sexual communication signal of a noctuid moth. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23: 2731–2738. PDF
  5. Kurczewski F. E., R. E. Coville and C. Schal. 2010. Observations on the nesting and prey of the solitary wasp, Tachysphex inconspicuus, with a review of nesting behavior in the T. obscuripennis species group. Journal of Insect Science 10:183Link
  6. Mankin R. W., R. D. Hodges, H. T. Nagle, C. Schal, R. M. Pereira and P. G. Koehler. 2010. Acoustic indicators for targeted detection of stored product and urban insect pests by inexpensive infrared, acoustic, and vibrational detection of movement. Journal of Economic Entomology 103: 1636–1646. PDF
  7. Menke S. B., W. Booth, R. R. Dunn, C. Schal, E. L. Vargo and J. Silverman. 2010. Is it easy to be urban? Convergent success in urban habitats among lineages of a widespread native ant. PLoS ONE 5(2): e9194. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009194Link
  8. Ponnusamy L., D. M. Wesson, C. Arellano, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2010. Species composition of bacterial communities influences attraction of mosquitoes to experimental plant infusions. Microbial Ecology 59: 158–173.PDF
  9. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, D. M. Wesson, K. Böröczky, L. Abu Ayyash, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2010. Oviposition responses of the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus to experimental plant infusions in laboratory bioassays. Journal of Chemical Ecology 36: 709–719. PDF
  10. Tomalski M., W. Leimkuehler, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2010. Metabolism of imidacloprid in workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 103: 84–95.PDF
  11. Youngsteadt E., P. G. Bustios and C. Schal. 2010. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia. PLoS ONE 5(12): e15822. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015822Link


  1. Benda N. D., C. Brownie, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2009. Fruit abscission by Physalis species as defense against frugivory. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 130: 21–27. PDF
  2. Booth W., E. Youngsteadt, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2009. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the ant-garden ant, Crematogaster levior (Forel). Conservation Genetics 10: 639–641. PDF
  3. Booth W., E. Youngsteadt, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2009. Characterization of 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the neotropical ant-garden ant, Camponotus femoratus (Fabricius). Conservation Genetics 10: 1401–1403. PDF
  4. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2009. Jail baits: How and why nymphs mimic adult females of the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaAnimal Behaviour 78: 1097–1105. PDF
  5. Gould F., Groot A., Vasquez G. and C. Schal. 2009. Sexual communication in Lepidoptera: a need for wedding genetics, biochemistry, and molecular biology. In: Molecular Biology and Genetics of the Lepidoptera (M. R. Goldsmith and F. Marec, eds.), Chapter 10, pp. 169–193, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
  6. Groot A. T., M. Estock, J. Horowitz, J. Hamilton, R. G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2009. QTL analysis of sex pheromone blend differences between two closely related moths: Insights into divergence in biosynthetic pathways. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 39: 568–577. PDF
  7. Groot A. T., O. Inglis, S. Bowdridge, R. G. Santangelo, C. Blanco, J. D. López, A. T. Vargas, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2009. Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication. Evolution 63: 1987–2003. PDF
  8. Nalyanya G., J. C. Gore, H. M. Linker and C. Schal. 2009. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: Comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control. Journal of Medical EntomologyForum 46: 420–427. PDF
  9. Schal C. 2009. The ABC’s of indoor health: Allergens, Baits, and Cockroach mitigation strategies. In: Advances in Human Vector Control, ACS Symposium Series, Volume 1014, Chapter 7, pp. 89-106. PDF
  10. Suazo A., C. Gore and C. Schal. 2009. RNA interference-mediated knock-down of Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica L., implicates this allergen-encoding gene in digestion and nutrient absorption. Insect Molecular Biology 18: 727–736. PDF
  11. Vasquez G. M., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2009. Colony fusion in Argentine ants is guided by worker and queen cuticular hydrocarbon profile similarity. Journal of Chemical Ecology 35: 922–932. PDF.
  12. Youngsteadt E., J. A. Baca, J. Osborne and C. Schal. 2009. Species-specific seed dispersal in an obligate ant-plant mutualism. PLoS One 4(2): e4335. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004335. Link


  1. Booth W., V. R. Lewis, R. L. Taylor, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2008. Identification and characterization of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the western dry-wood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1102–1104. PDF
  2. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, S. M. Siefert, D. L. Comins and C. Schal. 2008. Identification of cuticular lipids eliciting interspecific courtship in the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaNaturwissenschaften 95: 403–412 (cover photo). PDF
  3. Eliyahu D., S. Nojima, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2008. New contact sex pheromone components of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, predicted from the proposed biosynthetic pathway. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 229–237. PDF
  4. Fan Y., D. Eliyahu and C. Schal. 2008. Cuticular hydrocarbons as maternal provisions in embryos and nymphs of the cockroach Blattella germanicaJournal of Experimental Biology 211: 548–554. PDF
  5. Kapelinskaya T. V., E. U. Martynova, A. L. Korolev, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2008. Transcription of the German cockroach densovirus BgDNV genome: Alternative processing of viral RNAs. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics421: 176–180. PDF
  6. Mullen S. P., J. Millar, C. Schal and K. L. Shaw. 2008. Identification and characterization of cuticular hydrocarbons from a rapid species radiation of Hawaiian swordtailed crickets (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae: Laupala). Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 198–204. PDF
  7. Nojima S., C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 2008. A simple, convenient, and efficient preparative GC system that uses a short megabore capillary column as a trap. Journal of Chemical Ecology 34: 418–428. PDF
  8. Pfannenstiel R. S., W. Booth, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2008. The Asian cockroach Blattella asahinai Mizukubo (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): A new predator of lepidopteran eggs in south Texas soybean. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 101: 763–768. PDF
  9. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, S. Nojima, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2008. Identification of bacteria and bacteria-associated chemical cues that mediate oviposition site preferences by Aedes aegypti. Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesUSA105: 9262–9267. Link
  10. Ponnusamy L., N. Xu, G. Stav, D. M. Wesson, C. Schal and C. S. Apperson. 2008. Diversity of bacterial communities in container habitats of mosquitoes. Microbial Ecology 56: 593–603. PDF
  11. Vasquez G., C. Schal and J. Silverman. 2008. Cuticular hydrocarbons as queen adoption cues in the invasive Argentine ant. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1249–1256. PDF
  12. Youngsteadt E., S. Nojima, C. Häberlein, S. Schulz and C. Schal. 2008. Seed odor mediates an obligate ant-plant mutualism in Amazonian rainforest. Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesUSA 105: 4571–4575. Link


  1. Booth W., S. M. Bogdanowicz, P. A. Prodöhl, R. G. Harrison, C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2007. Identification and characterization of 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaMolecular Ecology Notes 7: 648–650. PDF
  2. Brent C. S., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2007. Endocrine effects of social stimuli on maturing queens of the dampwood termite Zootermopsis angusticollisPhysiological Entomology 32: 26–33. PDF
  3. Gore J. C. and C. Schal. 2007. Cockroach allergen biology and mitigation in the indoor environment. Annual Reviews of Entomology 52: 439–463. PDF
  4. Groot A. T., R. G. Santangelo, E. Ricci, C. Brownie, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2007. Differential attraction of Heliothis subflexa males to synthetic pheromone lures in Eastern US and Western Mexico. Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 353–368. PDF
  5. Mukha D. V., A. S. Kagramanova, I. V. Lazebnaya, O. E. Lazebnyi, E. L. Vargo and C. Schal. 2007. Intraspecific variation and population structure of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, revealed with RFLP analysis of the nontranscribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 21: 1–9. PDF
  6. Mullen S. P., T. C. Mendelson, C. Schal and K. L. Shaw. 2007. Rapid evolution of cuticular hydrocarbons in a species radiation of acoustically diverse Hawaiian crickets (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae: Laupala). Evolution 61: 223–231. PDF
  7. Sever M. L., S. J. Arbes , J. C. Jr. Gore, R. G. Santangelo, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell, C. Schal and D. C. Zeldin. 2007. Cockroach allergen reduction by cockroach control alone in low-income, urban homes: A randomized control trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 120: 849–855. PDF


  1. Groot A. T., J. Bennett, J. Hamilton, R. G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2006. Experimental evidence for interspecific directional selection force on moth pheromone communication. Proceedings of the National Academy of SciencesUSA 103: 5858–5863. Link      Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  2. Kagramanova A. S, A. L. Korolev, C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2006. Length polymorphism of integrated copies of R1 and R2 retrotransposons in the German cockroach (Blattella germanica) as a potential marker for population and phylogenetic studies. Russian Journal of Genetics 42: 397–401. PDF
  3. Kovanci O. B., C. Schal, J. F. Walgenbach and G. G. Kennedy. 2006. Effects of pheromone loading, dispenser age, and trap height on pheromone trap catches of the oriental fruit moth in apple orchards. Phytoparasitica 34: 252–260. PDF
  4. Mukha D. V., A. G. Chumachenko, M. J. Dykstra, J. Kurtti and C. Schal. 2006. Characterization of a new densovirus infecting the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaJournal of General Virology 87: 1567–1575. PDF
  5. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, S. Nojima. German cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 2006/0057101 A1 Published March 16, 2006. PDF
  6. Sheck A. l., A. Groot, C. M. Ward, C. Gemeno, J. Wang, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2006. Genetics of sex pheromone blend differences between Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa: A chromosome mapping approach. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19: 600–617. PDF


  1. Brent C. S., C. Schal and E. L. Vargo. 2005. Endocrine changes in maturing primary queens of Zootermopsis angusticollisJournal of Insect Physiology 51: 1200–1209. PDF
  2. Chumachenko A. G., C. Schal and D. V. Mukha. 2005. Discovery of retrotransposons of the cockroach Blattella germanicaDoklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 401: 104–107. PDF
  3. Fan Y., J. C. Gore, K. O. Redding, L. D. Vailes, M. D. Chapman and C. Schal. 2005. Tissue location and regulation by juvenile hormone of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) allergen Bla g 4. Insect Molecular Biology 14: 45–53. PDF
  4. Gore J. C. and C. Schal 2005. Expression, production and excretion of Bla g 1, a major human allergen, in relation to food intake in the German cockroach Blattella germanicaMedical and Veterinary Entomology 19: 127–134. PDF
  5. Groot A., Y. Fan, C. Brownie, R. A. Jurenka, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2005. Effect of PBAN of the sex pheromone compounds in glands of mated Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa females. Journal of Chemical Ecology 31: 14–28. PDF
  6. Groot A., C. Gemeno, C. Brownie, F. Gould and C. Schal. 2005. Male and female responses in Heliothis virescensand H. subflexa to conspecific and heterospecific sex pheromone compounds. Environmental Entomology 34: 256–263. PDF
  7. Kovanci O.B., C. Schal, J.F. Walgenbach and G.G. Kennedy. 2005. Comparison of mating disruption with pesticides for management of oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North Carolina apple orchards. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 1248–1258. PDF
  8. Kovanci O. B., J. F. Walgenbach, G. G. Kennedy and C. Schal. 2005. Effects of application rate and interval on the efficacy of sprayable pheromone for mating disruption of the oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta Phytoparasitica33: 334–342. PDF
  9. Lazebnaya I.V., S.K. Semenova, O.E. Lazebnyi, C. Schal and D.V. Mukha. 2005. Nuclear rDNA variability in laboratory strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. (Blattellidae). Russian Journal of Genetics 41: 468–472. PDF
  10. Mukha D.V., V.A. Mysina and C. Schal. 2005. Characteristics of the structure of minor variants of external transcribed spacers of ribosomal DNA of the cockroach Blattella germanicaDoklady Biological Sciences 404: 348–351. PDF
  11. Nojima S., C. Schal, F.X. Webster, R.G. Santangelo and W.L. Roelofs. 2005. Identification of the sex pheromone of the German cockroach, Blattella germanicaScience 307: 1104–1106. Link     Access the recommendation on F1000Prime
  12. Sorenson C. E., G. G. Kennedy, C. Schal, and J. F. Walgenbach. 2005. Geographical variation in pheromone response of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), in North Carolina: A 20-Y perspective. Journal of Economic Entomology 34: 1057–1062. PDF
  13. Williams G.M., H.M. Linker, M.G. Waldvogel, R.B. Leidy and C. Schal. 2005. Comparison of conventional and integrated pest management programs in public schools. Journal of Economic Entomology 98: 1275–1283. PDF
  14. Youngsteadt E., Y.L. Fan, B. Stay and C. Schal. 2005. Cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis and its maternal provisioning to embryos in the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata Journal of Insect Physiology 51: 803–809. PDF


  1. Arbes S.J., Jr., M. Sever, J. Mehta, J.C. Gore, C. Schal, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell and D.C. Zeldin. 2004. Abatement of cockroach allergens (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2) in low-income urban housing. Month 12 continuation results. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 113: 109–114. PDF
  2. Blomquist G. J., R. Jurenka, C. Schal and C. Tittiger. 2004. Biochemistry and molecular biology of pheromone production. In: Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science (L. Gilbert, K. Iatrou, S. Gill, Eds.), Volume 3, pp. 705–751, Pergamon Press.
  3. Eliyahu D. K. Mori, W.S. Leal, and C. Schal 2004. Behavioral activity of stereoisomers and a new component of the contact sex pheromone of female German cockroach, Blatella germanica. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 1839–1848. PDF
  4. Fan Y., C. Schal, E.L. Vargo and A.G. Bagneres. 2004. Characterization of termite lipophorin and its involvement in hydrocarbon transport. Journal of Insect Physiology 50: 609–620. PDF
  5. Gemeno C., L. Zurek, and C. Schal. 2004. Control of Herpomyces spp. (Ascomycetes: Laboulbeniales) infection in the wood cockroach, Parcoblatta latta (Dictyoptera: Blattodea: Blattellidae), with benomyl. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 85: 132–135. PDF
  6. Gemeno C. and C. Schal. 2004. Sex Pheromones of Cockroaches. In: Advances in Insect Chemical Ecology (R.T. Carde and J. Millar, Eds.), Chapter 6, pp. 179–247, Cambridge University Press, New York. Cambridge Books.
  7. Gore J. C. and C. Schal 2004. Gene expression and tissue distribution of the major human allergen Bla g 1 in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 41: 953–960. PDF
  8. Gore, J.C., and C. Schal 2004. Laboratory evaluation of boric acid-sugar solutions as baits for management of German cockroach infestations. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 581–587. PDF
  9. Gore, J.C., L. Zurek, R.G. Santangelo, S.M. Stringham, D.W. Watson and C. Schal. 2004. Water solutions of boric acid and sugar for management of German cockroach populations in livestock production systems. Journal of Economic Entomology 97: 715–720. PDF
  10. Groot A., J. O’brien, J. Bennett, J. Kelly, R.G. Santangelo, C. Schal and F. Gould. 2004. Introgressing pheromone QTL between species: Towards an evolutionary understanding of differentiation in sexual communication. Journal of Chemical Ecology 30: 2495–2514. PDF
  11. Holbrook G.L. and C. Schal. 2004. Maternal investment affects offspring phenotypic plasticity in a viviparous cockroach. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 101: 5595–5597. Link
  12. Zurek L. and C. Schal. 2004. Evaluation of the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, as a vector of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli F18 in confined swine production. Veterinary Microbiology 101: 263–267. PDF


  1. Arbes S. J., Jr., M. Sever, J. Archer, E. H. Long, J. C. Gore, C. Schal, M. Walter, B. Nuebler, B. Vaughn, H. Mitchell, E. Liu, N. Collette, P. Adler and D. C. Zeldin. 2003. Abatement of cockroach allergen (Bla g 1) in low-income, urban housing:a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112: 339–345. PDF (PDF of commentary by Peyton Eggleston).
  2. Fan Y., L. Zurek, M. J. Dykstra, and C. Schal. 2003. Hydrocarbon synthesis by enzymatically dissociated oenocytes of the abdominal integument of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Naturwissenschaften 90: 121–126. PDF
  3. Gemeno C., W. S. Leal, K. Mori and C. Schal. 2003. Behavioral and electropysiological responses of the brownbanded cockroach, Supella longipalpa, to stereoisomers of its sex pheromone, supellapyrone. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 1769–1783. PDF
  4. Gemeno C., K. Snook, N. Benda and C. Schal. 2003. Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for volatile sex pheromones in Parcoblatta wood cockroaches. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 37–54. PDF
  5. Holbrook, G. L., J. Roebuck, C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 2003. Origin and extent of resistance to fipronil in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1548–1558. PDF
  6. Mukha D. V. and C. Schal. 2003. A Densovirus of German cockroach Blattella germanica: Detection, nucleotide sequence, and genome organization. Molecular Biology 37: 513–523. PDF
  7. Schal C., Y. Fan and G. J. Blomquist. 2003. Regulation of pheromone biosynthesis, transport, and emission in cockroaches. In: Insect Pheromone Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (G. J. Blomquist and R. Vogt, Eds.), Ch. 10, pp. 283–322, Academic Press, New York. PDF
  8. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, C. Gemeno, M. J. Perich, D. Carlson and C. Schal. 2003. Field and laboratory evaluations of potential oviposition attractants for Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19: 228–234. PDF
  9. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, L. Zurek, C. Gemeno, C. Schal, M. Kaufman, E. Walker, D. W. Watson and L. Wallace. 2003. Role of bacteria in mediating the oviposition responses of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 841–848PDF
  10. Zurek L., J. C. Gore, M. S. Stringham, D. W. Watson, M. G. Waldvogel and C. Schal. 2003. Boric acid dust as a component of an integrated cockroach management program in confined swine production. Journal of Economic Entomology 96: 1362–1366. PDF


  1. Fan Y., J. Chase, V. L. Sevala and C. Schal. 2002. Lipophorin-facilitated hydrocarbon uptake by oocytes in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 781–790. PDF
  2. Mukha D. V., B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2002. Evolution and phylogenetic information content of the ribosomal DNA repeat unit in the Blattodea(Insecta). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 32: 951–960. PDF
  3. Mukha D.V., B.M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2002. Saltatory changes in the structure of the ribosomal DNA external transcribed spacer during the evolution of cockroaches of genus Blatella. Doklady Akademii nauk: A journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 387: 549–552.
  4. Zurek L., D. W. Watson, S. B. Krasnoff and C. Schal. 2002. Effect of the Entomopathogenic fungus, Entomophthora muscae (Zygomycetes: Entomophthoraceae), on sex pheromone and other cuticular hydrocarbons of the house fly, Musca domesticaJournal of Invertebrate Pathology 80: 171–176. PDF
  5. Zurek L., D. W. Watson, and C. Schal. 2002. Synergism between Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycota: Hyphomycetes) and boric acid against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Biological Control 23: 296–302. PDF


  1. Buczkowski G. and C. Schal. 2001. Method of insecticide delivery affects horizontal transfer of fipronil in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 680–685. PDF
  2. Buczkowski G. and C. Schal. 2001. Emetophagy: Fipronil-induced regurgitation of bait and its dissemination from German cockroach adults to nymphs. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 71: 147–155. PDF
  3. Buczkowski G., R. J. Kopanic and C. Schal. 2001. Transfer of ingested insecticides among cockroaches: effects of active ingredient, bait formulation, and assay procedures. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 1229–1236. PDF
  4. Kopanic R. J. Jr., G. L. Holbrook, V. Sevala and C. Schal. 2001. An adaptive benefit of facultative coprophagy in the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Ecological Entomology 26: 154–162. PDF
  5. Mpuru S., G. J. Blomquist, C. Schal, M. Roux, M. Kuenzli, G. Dusticier, J. -L. Clément and A. -G. Bagnères. 2001. Effect of age and sex on the production of internal and external hydrocarbons and pheromones in the housefly, Musca domesticaInsect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 31: 139–155. PDF
  6. Nalyanya G., D. Liang, R. J. Kopanic Jr. and C. Schal. 2001. Attractiveness of insecticide baits for cockroach control (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): Laboratory and field studies. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 686–693. PDF
  7. Nalyanya G. and C. Schal. 2001. Evaluation of attractants for monitoring populations of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 208–214. PDF
  8. Schal, C., V. Sevala, M. de L. Capurro, T. E. Snyder, G. J. Blomquist, and A.-G. Bagnères. 2001. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domesticaJournal of Insect Science 1: 12 (11 p). PDF
  9. Zurek L., S. S. Denning, C. Schal and D. W. Watson. 2001. Vector competence of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) for Yersinia pseudotuberculosisJournal of Medical Entomology 38: 333–335. PDF


  1. Holbrook G. L., E. Armstrong, J. A. S. Bachmann, B. M. Deasy and C. Schal. 2000. Role of feeding in the reproductive “group effect” in females of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 941–949. PDF
  2. Holbrook G. L., J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 2000. Effects of ovariectomy and mating on the activity of the corpora allata in adult female Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera:Blattellidae). Physiological Entomology 25: 27–34. PDF (PDF of Letter to the Editor & Response).
  3. Mukha D. V., A. P. Sidorenko, I. V. Lazebnaya, B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 2000. Analysis of intraspecies polymorphism in the ribosomal DNA cluster of the cockroach Blattella germanica. Insect Molecular Biology 9: 217–222. PDF
  4. Nalyanya G., C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 2000. Integration of repellents, attractants, and insecticides in a “push-pull” strategy for managing German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) populations. Journal of Medical Entomology 37: 427–434. PDF
  5. Sevala V., A. -G. Bagnères, M. Kuenzli, G. J. Blomquist and C. Schal. 2000. Cuticular hydrocarbons of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis (Hagen): Caste differences and role of lipophorin in transport of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon metabolites. Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 765–789. PDF
  6. Young H. P., J. Larabee, A. Gibbs and C. Schal. 2000. Relationship between tissue-specific hydrocarbon profiles and their melting temperatures in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 26: 1245–1263. PDF
  7. Zurek L., C. Schal and D. W. Watson. 2000. Diversity and contribution of the intestinal bacterial community to the development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology 37: 924-928. PDF


  1. Holbrook G. L., J. Roebuck, C. B. Moore and C. Schal. 1999. Prevalence and magnitude of insecticide resistance in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae). In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests (W. H. Robinson, F. Rettich and G. W. Rambo, eds.), Grafické Závody Hronov, Czech Republic, pp. 141-145. PDF
  2. Kopanic R. J. Jr. and C. Schal. 1999. Coprophagy facilitates horizontal transmission of bait among cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Environmental Entomology 28: 431-438. PDF
  3. Mukha D. V., B. M. Wiegmann and C. Schal. 1999. Saltatory changes in the ribosomal gene clusters during evolution of Cockroaches of the GenusBlattella. Doklady Akademii nauk: A journal of the Russian Academy of Sciences 364: 38-43. PDF
  4. Pearson G.A. and C. Schal. 1999. Electroantennogram responses of both sexes of grape root borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) to synthetic female sex pheromone. Environmental Entomology 28: 943-946. PDF
  5. Sevala V., S. Shu, S. B. Ramaswamy and C. Schal. 1999. Lipophorin of female Blattella germanica: Characterization and relation to hemolymph titers of juvenile hormone and hydrocarbons. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 431-441. PDF
  6. Young H. P, J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 1999. Food intake in Blattella germanica (L.) nymphs affects hydrocarbon synthesis and its allocation in adults between epicuticle and reproduction. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 41: 214-224. PDF
  7. Young H. P, J. A. S. Bachmann, V. Sevala and C. Schal. 1999. Site of synthesis, tissue distribution, and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons in Blattella germanica (L.) nymphs. Journal of Insect Physiology 45: 305-315. PDF
  8. Waldvogel M. G., C. B. Moore, G. W. Nalyanya, S. M. Stringham, D. W. Watson and C. Schal. 1999. Integrated cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) management in confined swine production. In: Proceedings of the 3rdInternational Conference on Urban Pests (W. H. Robinson, F. Rettich and G. W. Rambo, Eds.), Grafické Závody Hronov, Czech Republic, pp. 183-188. PDF


  1. Chiang A.-S., G. L. Holbrook, H-W. Cheng and C. Schal. 1998. Neural control of cell size in the corpora allata during the reproductive cycle of the cockroach Diploptera punctata (Dictyoptera: Blaberidae). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 33: 25-34.
  2. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang, Y-J. Lee and C-Y. Lin and C. Schal. 1998. Juvenile hormone synthesis in relation to corpus allatum development in embryos of the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 33: 69-79. PDF
  3. Holbrook G. L and C. Schal. 1998. Social influences on larval development in the viviparous cockroach Diploptera punctata. Physiological Entomology 23: 121-130. PDF
  4. Liang D., A. Zhang, R. J. Kopanic Jr., W. Roelofs and C. Schal. 1998. Field and laboratory evaluation of female sex pheromone for detection, monitoring, and management of brownbanded cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 91: 480-485. PDF
  5. Schal C., V. Sevala and R. T. Cardé. 1998. Novel and highly specific transport of a volatile sex pheromone by hemolymph lipophorin in moths. Naturwissenschaften 85: 339-342. PDF
  6. Schal C, V. L. Sevala, H. P. Young and J.A.S. Bachmann. 1998. Synthesis and transport of hydrocarbons: cuticle and ovary as target tissues. American Zoologist 38: 382-393. PDF
  7. Tillman J. A., G. L. Holbrook, P. L. Dallara, C. Schal, D. L. Wood, G. J. Blomquist and S. J. Seybold. 1998. Endocrine regulation of de novo aggregation pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 28: 705-715. PDF
  8. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson, and C. Schal. 1998. Laboratory and field evaluations of oviposition responses of Aedes lbopictus and Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to oak leaf infusions. Journal of Medical Entomology 35: 967-976. PDF


  1. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1997. Improved conditions for culture of biosynthetically active cockroach corpora allata. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Animal 33: 452-458. PDF
  2. Kopanic R. J. Jr. and C. Schal. 1997. Relative significance of direct ingestion and adult-mediated translocation of bait to German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) nymphs. Journal of Economic Entomology, Forum 90: 1073-1079. PDF
  3. Schal C., G. L. Holbrook, J. A. S. Bachmann and V. L. Sevala. 1997. Reproductive biology of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica: Juvenile hormone as a pleiotropic master regulator. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 35: 405-426. PDF
  4. Sevala V. L., J. A. S. Bachmann and C. Schal. 1997. Lipophorin: A hemolymph juvenile hormone binding protein in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27: 663-670. PDF
  5. Trexler J. D., C. S. Apperson and C. Schal. 1997. Diel oviposition patterns of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes triseriatus (Say) in the laboratory and the field. Journal of Vector Ecology 22: 64-70. PDF
  6. Young H. P. and C. Schal. 1997. Cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis in relation to feeding and developmental stage in Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) nymphs. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 90: 655-663. PDF


  1. Chiang A-S., G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal 1996. Development-activity relationships in nymphal corpora allata of Diploptera punctataPhysiological Entomology 21: 268-274. PDF
  2. Chiang A-S., W-H. Tsai, G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal. 1996. Control of cell proliferation in the corpora allata during the reproductive cycle of the cockroach Diploptera punctataArchives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32: 299-313. PDF
  3. Holbrook G. L., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1996. Allatostatin inhibition and farnesol stimulation of corpus allatum activity in embryos of the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctataArchives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32: 341-352. PDF
  4. Kinscherf K. M., R. J. Steltenkamp, T. F. Connors and C. Schal. 1996. Benefits of cleaning products containing the repellent methyl neodecanamide against Blattella germanica (L.). International Pest Control 38: 88-91. PDF(5.9MB)
  5. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, R. E. Charlton and A. Zhang. April 9, 1996. Cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 5,505,951. PDF
  6. Schal C., D. Liang and G. J. Blomquist. 1996. Neural and endocrine control of pheromone production and release in cockroaches. In: Insect Pheromone Research: New Directions (R. T. Cardé and A. K. Minks, Eds.), Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 3-20. PDF (9MB)


  1. Chiang A-S., W-H. Tsai and C. Schal C. 1995. Neural and hormonal regulation of corpora allata in the cockroach, Diploptera punctataMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology 115: 51-57. PDF
  2. Gu X., D. Quilici, P. Juarez, G. J. Blomquist and C. Schal. 1995. Biosynthesis of hydrocarbons and contact sex pheromone and their transport by lipophorin in females of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica). Journal of Insect Physiology 41: 257-267. PDF
  3. Leal W. S., X. Shi, D. Liang, C. Schal and J. Meinwald. 1995. Application of chiral gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection to the determination of the stereochemistry of a cockroach sex pheromone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 92: 1033-1037. PDF
  4. Patt J. M., J. C. French, C. Schal, J. Leck and T. G. Hartman. 1995. The pollination biology of tuckahoe, Peltandra virginica (Araceae). American Journal of Botany 82: 1230-1240. PDF
  5. Schal C. and A-S. Chiang. 1995. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches. Experientia 51: 994-998. PDF
  6. Tsai W-H., G. L. Holbrook, C. Schal and A-S. Chiang. 1995. In vitro growth of corpora allata from Diploptera punctataIn Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 31: 542-546. PDF


  1. Chiang A-S. and C. Schal C. 1994. Cyclic volumetric changes in corpus allatum cells in relation to juvenile hormone biosynthesis during ovarian cycles in cockroaches. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 27: 53-64. PDF
  2. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1994. Neural and hormonal regulation of calling behavior in Blattella germanica females. Journal of Insect Physiology 40: 251-258. PDF
  3. Roelofs W. L., C. Schal, F. X. Webster, R. E. Charlton and A. Zhang. March 22, 1994. Cockroach attractant. U. S. Pat. 5,296,220. PDF
  4. Schal C., X. Gu, E. L. Burns and G. J. Blomquist. 1994. Patterns of biosynthesis and accumulation of hydrocarbons and contact sex pheromone in the female German cockroach, Blattella germanicaArchives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 25: 375-391. PDF (PDF of Introduction to Special Issue of AIBP).


  1. Blomquist G. J., J. A. Tillman-Wall, L. Guo, D. R. Quilici, P. Gu and C. Schal. 1993. Hydrocarbon and hydrocarbon-derived sex pheromones in insects: Biochemistry and endocrine regulation. In: Insect Lipids: Chemistry, Biochemistry & Biology (D. W. Stanley-Samuelson and D. R. Nelson, Eds.), University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska, pp. 317-351. PDF (11MB)
  2. Charlton R. E., F. X. Webster, A. Zhang, C. Schal, D. Liang, I. Sreng and W. L. Roelofs. 1993. Sex pheromone of the brownbanded cockroach is an unusual dialkyl-substituted alpha-pyrone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 90: 10202-10205. Link
  3. Gadot M., M. P. Pener and C. Schal. 1993. Variability in juvenile hormone production by locust corpora allata kept in vitro for long periods. Physiological Entomology 18: 257-262. PDF
  4. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Volatile sex pheromone in the female German cockroach. Experientia 49: 324-328. PDF
  5. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Female calling behavior of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 6: 603-614. PDF
  6. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1993. Ultrastructure and maturation of a sex pheromone gland in the female German cockroach, Blattella germanicaTissue & Cell 25: 763-776. PDF
  7. Schal C., A-S. Chiang, E. L. Burns, M. Gadot and R. A. Cooper. 1993. Role of the brain in juvenile hormone synthesis and oocyte development: Effects of dietary protein in the cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 39: 303-313. PDF


  1. Chase J., K. Toahara, G. D. Prestwich, C. Schal and G. J. Blomquist. 1992. Biosynthesis and endocrine control of the production of the German cockroach sex pheromone, 3,11-dimethylnonacosan-2-one. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 89: 6050-6054. Link
  2. Chiang A-S., G. L. Holbrook and C. Schal. 1992. Postembryonic development of the corpora allata in relation to juvenile hormone biosynthesis in cockroaches. In: Fundamental and Applied Progress in Insect Juvenile Hormone Research (B. Mauchamp, F. Couillaud and J. C. Baehr, Eds.), INRA Press, France, pp. 219-230.
  3. Cooper R. A and C. Schal. 1992. Effects of protein type on development and reproduction of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata 63: 123-134. PDF
  4. Cooper R. A and C. Schal. 1992. Differential development and reproduction of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) on three laboratory diets. Journal of Economic Entomology 85: 838-844. PDF
  5. Gadot M., C. Schal and M. P. Pener. 1992. Long-term in vitro incubation of insect corpora allata. In: Fundamental and Applied Progress in Insect Juvenile Hormone Research (B. Mauchamp, F. Couillaud and J. C. Baehr, Eds.), INRA Press, France, pp. 63-72. PDF (6.4MB)
  6. Patt J. M., T. G. Hartman, W. Creekmore, J. Elliott, C. Schal, J. Lech and R. T. Rosen. 1992. The floral odour of Peltandra virginica contains novel trimethyl-2,5-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]nonanes. Phytochemistry 31: 487-491. PDF
  7. Schal C. 1992. Sulfluramid resistance and vapor toxicity in field-collected German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 29: 207-215. PDF
  8. Schal C., D. Liang, L. K. Hazarika, R. E. Charlton and W. L. Roelofs. 1992. Site of pheromone production in female Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae): Behavioral, electrophysiological and morphological evidence. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85: 605-611. PDF
  9. Steltenkamp R. J., R. L. Hamilton, R. A. Cooper and C. Schal. 1992. Alkyl and aryl neoalkanamides: Highly effective insect repellents. Journal of Medical Entomology, Forum 29: 141-149. PDF


  1. Burns E. L., A-S. Chiang, M. Gadot and C. Schal. 1991. Juvenile hormone regulation of the left colleterial gland in intact and ovariectomized Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 37: 401-405. PDF
  2. Chiang A-S., E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Ovarian regulation of cyclic changes in size and activity of corpus allatum cells in Blattella germanicaJournal of Insect Physiology 37: 907-917. PDF
  3. Chiang A-S., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Sexual differentiation of nymphal corpora allata and the effects of ovariectomy on gland morphometrics in adult Blattella germanicaExperientia 47: 81-83. PDF
  4. Chiang A-S., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Developmental regulation of juvenile hormone synthesis: Ovarian synchronization of volumetric changes in corpus allatum cells in cockroaches. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 75: 141-147. PDF
  5. Chiang A-S. and C. Schal. 1991. Correlation between size of corpus allatum and juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Blattella germanica adult females. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 18: 37-44. PDF
  6. Corrigan J. E., J. H. Lashomb, M. L. May and C. Schal. 1991. Oviposition behavior of Edovum puttleri, reared on two hosts, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and L. texanaEntomologia experimentalis et Applicata 61: 139-147. PDF
  7. Gadot M., A-S. Chiang, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1991. Cyclic juvenile hormone biosynthesis in the cockroach Blattella germanica: Effects of ovariectomy and corpus allatum denervation. General and Comparative Endocrinology 82: 163-171. PDF
  8. Hamilton R. L. and C. Schal. 1991. Effects of dextrin and cellulose on feeding and reproduction in female brown-banded cockroaches, Supella longipalpaPhysiological Entomology 16: 57-64. PDF
  9. Schal C., E. L. Burns, M. Gadot, J. Chase and G. J. Blomquist 1991. Biochemistry and regulation of pheromone production in Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Insect Biochemistry 21: 73-79. PDF
  10. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1991. Circadian calling behavior in the adult female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 4: 1-14. PDF
  11. Yin L. R. S., C. Schal and R. T. Cardé. 1991. Sex pheromone gland of the female tiger moth Holomelina lamae(Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 1916-1921. PDF


  1. Blomquist, G. J. and C. Schal. 1990. Biochemistry and endocrine regulation of sex pheromone production in the housefly and German cockroach. In: Molecular Insect Science (H. H. Hagedorn, J. G. Hildebrand, M. G. Kidwell and J. H. Law, Eds), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 231-242. PDF (8MB)
  2. Chase J., R. A. Jurenka, C. Schal, P. P. Halarnkar and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. Biosynthesis of methyl branched hydrocarbons: Precursors to the female contact sex pheromone of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.) (Orthoptera, Blattellidae). Insect Biochemistry 20: 149-156. PDF
  3. Chiang A., M. Gadot, E. L. Burns and C. Schal. 1990. Changes in number and size of corpus allatum cells of Blattella germanica during oocyte maturation. In: Insect Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology (A. B. Borkovec and E. P. Masler, Eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, pp. 317-320. PDF
  4. Chon T-S., D. Liang and C. Schal. 1990. Effects of mating and grouping on oocyte development and pheromone release activities in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.) (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Environmental Entomology 19: 1716-1721. PDF
  5. Gadot M., A. Chiang, E. Burns and C. Schal. 1990. Patterns of corpora allata activity in ovariectomized Blattella germanica. In: Insect Neurochemistry and Neurophysiology (A. B. Borkovec and E. P. Masler, Eds.), Humana Press, Clifton, pp. 321-324. PDF
  6. Hamilton R. H., R. A. Cooper and C. Schal. 1990. The influence of nymphal and adult dietary protein on consumption and reproduction in female brown-banded cockroaches. Entomologia experimentalis et Applicata 55: 23-31. PDF
  7. Hamilton R. H. and C. Schal. 1990. Sublethal effects of chlorpyrifos-methyl on reproduction in female German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 83: 441-443. PDF
  8. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1990. Effects of pheromone concentration and photoperiod on the behavioral response sequence to sex pheromone in the male brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa. Journal of Insect Behavior3: 211-223. PDF
  9. Liang D. and C. Schal. 1990. Circadian rhythmicity and development of the behavioural response to sex pheromone in male brown-banded cockroaches, Supella longipalpa. Physiological Entomology 15: 355-361. PDF
  10. Schal C., E. Burns and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. Endocrine regulation of female contact sex pheromone production in the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.). Physiological Entomology 15: 81-91. PDF
  11. Schal C., E. L. Burns, R. A. Jurenka and G. J. Blomquist. 1990. A new component of the sex pheromone of Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae), and interaction with other pheromone components. Journal of Chemical Ecology 16: 1997-2008. PDF
  12. Schal C. and R. Hamilton. 1990. Integrated suppression of synanthropic cockroaches. Annual Review of Entomology 35: 521-551. PDF
  13. Schal C. and A. Smith. 1990. Neuroendocrine regulation of pheromone synthesis and release in cockroaches. In: Cockroaches As Models for Neurobiology: Applications in Biomedical Research (I. Huber, B. R. Rao, E. P. Masler, Eds.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, Vol. II, pp. 179-200. PDF (13MB)
  14. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1990. Corpora allata control of pheromone production and release in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.). Journal of Insect Physiology 36: 251-257. PDF
  15. Smith A. F. and C. Schal. 1990. The physiological basis for the termination of calling in the female brown-banded cockroach, Supella longipalpa (F.). Journal of Insect Physiology 36: 369-373. PDF


  1. Chiang A., M. Gadot and C. Schal. 1989. Morphometric analysis of the corpus allatum cells in adult females of three cockroach species. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 67: 179-184. PDF
  2. Gadot M., A-S. Chiang and C. Schal. 1989. Farnesoic acid-stimulated rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis during the gonotrophic cycle in Blattella germanica. Journal of Insect Physiology 35: 537-542. PDF
  3. Gadot M., E. Burns and C. Schal. 1989. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and oocyte development in adult female Blattella germanica: Effects of grouping and mating. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 11: 189-200. PDF
  4. Jurenka R. A., C. Schal, E. Burns, J. Chase and G. J. Blomquist. 1989. Structural correlation between the cuticular hydrocarbons and the female contact sex pheromone of the German cockroach Blattella germanica (L.). Journal of Chemical Ecology 15: 939-949. PDF
  5. Smith A. F., K. Yagi, S. S. Tobe and C. Schal. 1989. In vitro rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis in adult virgin and mated female Supella longipalpa (F.) over two reproductive cycles. Journal of Insect Physiology 35: 781-785. PDF


  1. Hamilton R.L. and C. Schal. 1988. Effects of dietary protein levels on reproduction and food consumption in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 81: 969-976. PDF
  2. Schal C. 1988. Relation among efficacy of insecticides, resistance levels, and sanitation, in the control of the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). Journal of Economic Entomology 81: 536-544. PDF
  3. Schal C. 1988. Regulation of pheromone synthesis and release in cockroaches. In: Endocrinological Frontiers in Physiological Insect Ecology ( F. Sehnal, A. Zabza, D. L. Denlinger, Eds.), Technical University of Wroclaw Press, Poland, pp. 695-700. PDF


  1. Elkinton J.S., C. Schal, T. Ono and R. T. Cardé. 1987. Pheromone puff trajectory and upwind flight of male gypsy moths in a forest. Physiological Entomology 12: 399-406. PDF
  2. Schal C., R. Charlton and R. T. Cardé. 1987. Temporal patterns of sex pheromone titers and release rates in Holomelina lamae (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology 13: 1115-1129. PDF


  1. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1986. Vertical community structure and resource utilization in some neotropical rain-forest cockroaches. Ecological Entomology 11: 411-423. PDF
  2. Schal C. and R. T. Cardé. 1986. Effects of temperature and light on calling behavior in the tiger moth Holomelina lamae (Freeman) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Physiological Entomology 11: 75-87. PDF
  3. Webster R., R. Charlton, C. Schal and R. T. Cardé. 1986. High efficiency pheromone trap for monitoring the European Corn Borer. Journal of Economic Entomology 79: 1139-1142. PDF


  1. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1985. Calling behavior in female cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattaria). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 58: 261-268. PDF
  2. Schal C. and R. T. Cardé. 1985. Rhythmic extrusion of pheromone gland elevates pheromone release rate. Experientia 41: 1617-1619. PDF


  1. Schal C., J.-Y. Gautier and W. J. Bell. 1984. Behavioural ecology of cockroaches. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 59: 209-254. PDF


  1. Schal C. 1983. Behavioral and Physiological Ecology and Community Structure of Tropical Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattaria). Ph.D. Dissertation, 130 p. (Major professor: Dr. William J. Bell). Link
  2. Schal C. 1983. Blaberus giganteus and Xestoblatta hamata: Examples of behavioral diversity of tropical cockroaches. In: Costa Rican Natural History (D. Janzen, Ed.), University of Chicago Press, pp. 693-696. PDF
  3. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1983. Determinants of dominant-subordinate interactions in males of the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea. Biology of Behaviour 8: 117-139. PDF
  4. Schal C., T. R. Tobin, J. L. Surber, G. Vogel, M. K. Tourtellot, R. Leban, R. Sizemore and W. J. Bell. 1983. Search strategy of sex pheromone stimulated male German cockroaches. Journal of Insect Physiology 29: 575-579. PDF


  1. Schal C. 1982. Intraspecific vertical stratification as a mate-finding mechanism in tropical cockroaches. Science215: 1405-1407. PDF
  2. Schal C. and W. J. Bell. 1982. Ecological correlates of paternal investment of urates in a tropical cockroach. Science 281: 171-173. PDF
  3. Schal C., J. Fraser and W. J. Bell. 1982. Disturbance stridulation and chemical defence in nymphs of the tropical cockroach Megaloblatta blaberoides. Journal of Insect Physiology 28: 541-552. PDF


  1. Fisk F. W. and C. Schal. 1981. Notes on new species of epilamprine cockroaches from Costa Rica and Panama (Blattaria: Blaberidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 83: 694-706. PDF


  1. Bell W. J. and C. Schal. 1980. Patterns of turning in courtship orientation in the male German cockroach. Animal Behaviour 28: 86-94. PDF